Negative externalities and government intervention
To many economists interested in environmental problems the key is to internalise external costs and benefits to ensure that those who create the externalities include them when making decisions.
- One common approach to adjust for externalities is to tax those who create negative externalities.
- This is known as "making the polluter pay".
- Introducing a tax increases the private cost of consumption or production and ought to reduce demand and output for the good that is creating the externality.
- Some economists argue that the revenue from pollution taxes should be 'ring-fenced' and allocated to projects that protect or enhance our environment.
- For example, the money raised from a congestion charge on vehicles entering busy urban roads, might be allocated towards improving mass transport services; or the revenue from higher taxes on cigarettes might be used to fund better health care programmes.
How to deal with the mountain of waste?
Despite a decade of soaring recycling rates, the UK still landfills more rubbish than any other country in Europe. Each landfill site releases huge amounts of methane – a greenhouse gas 20 times as damaging as CO2 – into the atmosphere. Reports suggest the UK is now running out of places to bury its waste – one study found every landfill site will be full by 2018.
Under severe pressure from the European Union to cut the amount of rubbish it buries, the British government introduced a landfill tax for local authorities that mean the amount they must pay per tonne rises with every passing year. From a base rate of £7-per-tonne in 2000, the charge has now hit £56 – and will rise to £80 by 2014.
To get to a 'zero waste' economy local authorities will have to persuade people and businesses to create less waste in the first place, as well as re-use and recycle more. Where it's not possible to turn waste into new products, it makes more sense to use it to generate power for homes and businesses, rather than send it to landfill. So enters the spectre of the incinerator, long associated in this country with dirty, industrial plants spewing out toxic smoke.
But new technology allows for other ways of dealing with waste. Anaerobic digesters are another option, taking green and organic waste and using biological processes to turn it into electricity.
Burning rubbish is such old technology," said an anti-incinerator campaigner. "If you burn things, there have to be emissions.
Source: News reports
- The Landfill Tax - this tax aims to encourage producers to produce less waste and to recover more value from waste, for example through recycling or composting and to use environmentally friendly methods of waste disposal
- The Congestion Charge: -this is a high profile environmental charge introduced in February 2003. It is designed to cut traffic congestion in inner-London by charging motorists £8 per day to enter the central charging zone
- Plastic Bag Tax: A tax on plastic bags in Wales has seen the number given away drop by sizeable amounts according to this news report Since October 2011, there has been a minimum charge of 5p on all single use carrier bags. The Welsh government acted in a bid to encourage re-use of bags and therefore lower demand for single-use free bags. The justification was on economic and environmental grounds:
- Vehicle excise duty (VED): VED starts from a theoretical 'nil' rate and accelerating up depending on the carbon emissions of the vehicle
Evaluation: Problems with Environmental Taxes
Pollution taxes can lead to government failure
- Assigning the right level of taxation: There are problems in setting tax so that private cost will exactly equate with the social cost.
- Consumer welfare effects: Producers may pass on the tax to the consumers if the demand for the good is inelastic and, as result, the tax may only have a small effect in reducing demand. Taxes on some de-merit goods (for example cigarettes) may have a regressive effect on lower-income consumers and leader to a widening of inequalities in the distribution of income.
Externalities and Regulation
The government can intervene in a market using regulations and laws. For example, the Health and Safety at Work Act covers all public and private sector businesses. Local Councils can take action against noisy, unruly neighbours and can pass by-laws preventing the public consumption of alcohol. The British government introduced a ban on smoking in public places from July 2007. The European Union has introduced directives on how consumer durables such as cars, batteries, fridges freezers and other products should be disposed of. The onus is now on producers to provide facilities for consumers to bring back their unwanted products.
Alternative to taxing the bad - subsidising positive externalities
- An alternative to taxing activities that create negative externalities is to subsidise activities that lead to positive externalities
- This reduces the costs of production for suppliers and encourages a higher output
- For example the Government may subsidise state health care; public transport or investment in new technology for schools and colleges to help spread knowledge and understanding
- There is also a case for subsidies to encourage higher levels of training as a means to raise labour productivity and improve our international competitiveness
This course focuses solely on teaching & learning resources and approaches to delivering the wider range of quantitative methods contained in the new A Level and AS Level specifications. We've put together a comprehensive collection of teaching materials that will help accelerate your planning and preparation for the extended QM elements for A Level Economics.