There have been an estimated 150 conflicts since 1945 with 28 million deaths (this is twice the toll of WW1). Conflicts have huge collateral damage effects - Angola has lost 80% of its farmland because of landmines. Most conflicts are intra-state i.e. civil war and reconstruction can take decades. For example Rwanda has an ambitious development and growth plan but their economy remains highly aid-dependent. About 1.5 billion people live in countries suffering repeated waves of political and criminal violence.

The Global Peace Index brings together 23 indicators, ranging from a nation’s level of military expenditure to its relations with neighbouring countries and the level of respect for human rights.


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