The global financial and economic crisis has created many problems for airlines - falling business and 1st class passenger revenues, increased insurance costs, problems in getting loan finance, volatile exchange rate and the challenges of steep increases in aviation fuel prices to name just a few. We could also add the shockwaves from the spring 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami, the Arab Spring and a decline in tourism, and the steadily deteriorating global economic outlook - with the Euro Zone crisis threatening a second recession for Western Europe.
But discount airlines - carriers that offer no-frills and charge plenty for extras on top of low basic fares - seem to have fared pretty well despite the turbulent conditions. Many passengers now appear willing to sacrifice luxury for cheaper flights and there are plenty of news stories of low-cost airlines in Europe, Asia and Africa who are announcing expanded route maps for 2012 and beyond.
What economic factors help explain the continued expansion of low-cost airline carriers?
Low cost carriers flying high
Singapore Times: A testy year ahead for global aviation
BBC News: Business bites: Trade row fears over EU airline carbon emissions tax (December 2011)
Our AQA A Level Economics Year 1 (AS) Course Companion is the designed as a high quality and cost-effective replacement for expensive and overly complicated textbooks. The Course Companion maps precisely against the AQA specification and teaching content for Year 1 (AS) and provides students with comprehensive and concise coverage of what students really need to know and understand.
This resource comprises two practice exam papers (with supporting mark schemes) for each of the two Year 1 (AS) papers. The format of each practice exam paper follows precisely the format of the specimen assessment materials issued by the board that have been accredited by Ofqual.