McGregor developed two theories of human behaviour at work: Theory and X and Theory Y.
He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between.
Theory X workers could be described as follows:
- Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible
- Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led
- Individuals who desire security
The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment.
Theory Y workers were characterised by McGregor as:
- Consider effort at work as just like rest or play
- Ordinary people who do not dislike work. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment
- Individuals who seek responsibility (if they are motivated0
The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment (or culture) where workers can show and develop their creativity.
We'll use this Series to curate resources that support teachers and students preparing for the BUSS4 Section A Research Theme on Manufacturing in the UK (June 2015). These resources will complement our popular BUSS4 Section A Toolkit on Manufacturing and the BUSS4 Exam Coaching Workshops which also include sessions on Manufacturing.
Our Year 1 (AS) Course Companion is the designed as a high quality and cost-effective replacement for expensive and overly complicated textbooks. The Course Companion maps precisely against the specification and teaching content for Year 1 (AS) and provides students with comprehensive and concise coverage of what students really need to know and understand.
This resource comprises two practice exam papers (with supporting mark schemes) for each of the two Year 1 (AS) papers. The format of each practice exam paper follows precisely the format of the specimen assessment materials issued by the board that have been accredited by Ofqual.