Explore Business

McGregor developed two theories of human behaviour at work: Theory and X and Theory Y.

He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between.

Theory X workers could be described as follows:

- Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible

- Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led

- Individuals who desire security

The management implications for Theory X workers were that, to achieve organisational objectives, a business would need to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment.

Theory Y workers were characterised by McGregor as:

- Consider effort at work as just like rest or play

- Ordinary people who do not dislike work. Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment

- Individuals who seek responsibility (if they are motivated0

The management implications for Theory X workers are that, to achieve organisational objectives, rewards of varying kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to create a working environment (or culture) where workers can show and develop their creativity.


BUSS4 Section A 2015: UK Manufacturing

We'll use this Series to curate resources that support teachers and students preparing for the BUSS4 Section A Research Theme on Manufacturing in the UK (June 2015). These resources will complement our popular BUSS4 Section A Toolkit on Manufacturing and the BUSS4 Exam Coaching Workshops which also include sessions on Manufacturing.

Read more ›

Teaching & learning products

Edexcel A Level Business Year 1 (AS) Calculation Practice Sheets

This resource comprises a complete collection of editable worksheets that that enable students to practice all elements of the quantitative and data analysis skills required by the Year 1 (AS) teaching content.


AQA A Level Business Year 1 (AS) Lesson Worksheets and Case Studies

A complete collection of editable lesson topic worksheets and exam-style case studies that are ideal for teaching individual topics for the whole Year 1 (AS) teaching content.


Latest reference

Study notes


Study notes

Business failure

Study notes

Sales forecasting

Study notes

Stock Control Charts

Study notes


Study notes

Peer-to-peer lending