The way in which promotion is targeted is traditionally split into two types - “above the line” and “below the line”.
Above the line promotion
This is paid for communication in the independent media e.g. advertising on TV or in the newspapers. Though it can be targeted, it can also be seen by anyone outside the target audience.
The main aims of above-the-line promotion are to inform customers, raise awareness and build brand positioning. Above-the-line tends to have a higher cost since the promotional methods used are less precise.
Below the line promotion
This concerns promotional activities where the business has direct control over the target or intended audience. There are many methods of below-the-line, including sales promotions, direct marketing, personal selling and sponsorship.
Exemplar A grade worked answers to recent AQA GCSE Business Studies Unit 2 exam papers with examiner commentary on how to score top marks